A Brief History of Clocks: From Thales to Ptolemy By: This article gives a brief overview of the early times of clockwork: Look at the comments on this paper.
Bridging Science and Religion: Historical roots and the contemporary problem. Though the problematic relations between science and religion can be found throughout contemporary Western culture, their roots lie in the radical changes in the relation between theology and culture in the West since the Enlightenment and the rise of modern science.
Still the backdrop to these changes lies more remotely in the ancient Near East and the monotheistic faith it produced.
Since Biblical days, Jews and Christians have believed in a God who is the Creator of all that is and the Redeemer of the oppressed, the sick, the dying and the forgotten. From the ancient Psalmist who prayed for divine aid to the faithful who cry out today at synagogue and church for God to hear their prayers, the people of the Sacred texts believe in a God who acts in history and in nature with justice, mercy and love.
It is the LORD God who brought the people of Israel out of the land of Egypt, out of bondage and into the promised land, and again who brought them out of exile in Babylon to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. It is this same God whom Christians find incarnate in the flesh of the Nazarene and revealed in his life, death and resurrection, the same God who established the Church at Pentecost and who will guide history until the close of the age.
Over the years, faith in God has developed in the context of, and in critical tension with, the prevailing philosophies of the West. For theology is the critical reflection on religious experience, sacred text and tradition, undertaken in the context of the prevailing culture.
Thus we have seen the influence of Platonism and Gnosticism in such early theologians as Irenaeus, Athanasius, Augustine and Philo. We have seen Aquinas and the Scholastics of the High Middle Ages wrestle with the science and philosophy of Aristotle.
Though the great Protestant reformers Luther, Calvin were primarily concerned with matters internal to church theology, the Enlightenment philosophy of Descartes, Hume and most importantly Kant has had a massive influence on the thought of both Protestants and Catholics.
One need only think of Schleiermacher, Ritschl, Harnack and Troeltsch in the nineteenth century, and Barth, the Niebuhrs, Tillich, or Catholic theologians such as Rahner and Lonergan in the early to mid twentieth.
Now contemporary thinkers in Black, feminist and other liberation theologies, have continued the dialogue with ongoing trends in philosophy and the social and political sciences.
Surely the new philosophies of the Enlightenment, with their turn to the subject, their dependence on autonomous reason, and their rejection of authority and text, radically transformed Christian theology across the board. Yet many now believe that the greatest factor in shaping contemporary Christian theology, including even its foundations in Biblical hermeneutics and theological method, has been the rise of modern science in the sixteenth and seventeenth century.
A God in whom "we live and move and have our being," as Saint Paul wrote, made sense when the heavens wrapped around the world and humans were a part of a cosmic drama that included all of creation, when history had a beginning and marched towards a future of fulfillment, when life was a divine and sacred gift and when eternity awaited those who worked for justice with compassion.
The rise of modern science and its interpretation by the Enlightenment philosophies of reductionism, materialism and naturalism, brought an end to all that. With Copernicus our universe was inverted, the earth cast adrift from its Ptolemaic moorings into the unending night of a vast and trackless universe.
With Newton this living universe became an unthinking machine whose fully predictable, deterministic, clock-work regularity seemed to leave no room for us to act, let alone for God. The "age of reason" replaced the authority of revelation and church as a surer guide to knowledge and behavior.
The world became ordinary and the miraculous was relegated to folklore, best forgotten. By the nineteenth century the age of the earth had been multiplied from mere thousands to now countless millions of years. Still for the majority of people in the pulpit or in the pew, science and religion seemed to be irrelevant.
We might experience life as wondrous, passionate, full of colors and hopes, but this subjectivity had no counterpart in the realm of objective, scientific knowledge and sterile, inanimate matter. Instead nature became a barren landscape lacking any ultimate part in the eternal destiny awaiting the faithful.
As for this world, we humans were left as "strangers in a strange land," concerned with social, political, economic and spiritual transformation, but with our religion the passion of our total being for our ground and goal cut off from our ancient evolutionary roots in earth and cosmos.
In the process the environment that transitory stage for the only real drama, human history was left to our use.
Combined with the burgeoning power brought by scientific knowledge, the Biblical role of dominion fell quickly into domination.The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution.
In antiquity, independent of Greek philosophers and other civilizations, ancient Chinese philosophers made significant advances in science, technology, mathematics, and ashio-midori.com first recorded observations of comets, . ashio-midori.com: The Genius of China: 3, Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention (): Robert Temple, Joseph Needham: Books.
Boards and Departments of Education. California Department of Education. Information on all facets of K state education programs with links to a variety of resources . Black people were not usually allowed to acquire formal education during the slavery era.
As a matter of fact, various laws were passed in the South disallowing . A brief history of capitalism and its redefinition of objective reality. Renaissance man turned his gaze backward in historical time.
Not to his immediate past which he arrogantly assumed was "dark," but to the classical past of ancient Greece and Rome, which he assumed was bathed in light. There he found a Golden Age.