Safavi, "The lovely old days: Poems", Septemberpublication In Farsi A. Piruz Kolahi AzarA.
Ancient Egyptian agricultureHistory of ancient EgyptHistory of Egyptand Population history of Egypt Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period c. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the river region.
Predynastic period Main article: Large regions of Egypt were covered in treed savanna and traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. Foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl.
Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, and this is also the period when many animals were first domesticated. The largest of these early cultures in upper Southern Egypt was the Badariwhich probably originated in the Western Desert; it was known for its high quality ceramics, stone toolsand its use of copper.
As early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from Ethiopiaused to shape blades and other objects from flakes. They also developed a ceramic glaze known as faiencewhich was used well into the Roman Period to decorate cups, amulets, and figurines.
The third-century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs from Menes to his own time into 30 dynasties, a system still used today. He began his official history with the king named Ali fekri thesis or Menes in Greek who was believed to have united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.
Some scholars now believe, however, that the mythical Menes may have been the king Narmerwho is depicted wearing royal regalia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette, in a symbolic act of unification.
The increasing power and wealth of the Ali fekri thesis during the early dynastic period was reflected in their elaborate mastaba tombs and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used to celebrate the deified king after his death.
Old Kingdom of Egypt Major advances in architecture, art, and technology were made during the Old Kingdomfueled by the increased agricultural productivity and resulting population, made possible by a well-developed central administration.
Under the direction of the Ali fekri thesisstate officials collected taxes, coordinated irrigation projects to improve crop yielddrafted peasants to work on construction projects, and established a justice system to maintain peace and order.
Kings also made land grants to their mortuary cults and local temples, to ensure that these institutions had the resources to worship the king after his death. Scholars believe that five centuries of these practices slowly eroded the economic vitality of Egypt, and that the economy could no longer afford to support a large centralized administration.
First Intermediate Period of Egypt After Egypt's central government collapsed at the end of the Old Kingdom, the administration could no longer support or stabilize the country's economy.
Regional governors could not rely on the king for help in times of crisis, and the ensuing food shortages and political disputes escalated into famines and small-scale civil wars. Yet despite difficult problems, local leaders, owing no tribute to the pharaoh, used their new-found independence to establish a thriving culture in the provinces.
Once in control of their own resources, the provinces became economically richer—which was demonstrated by larger and better burials among all social classes. As the Intefs grew in power and expanded their control northward, a clash between the two rival dynasties became inevitable.
They inaugurated a period of economic and cultural renaissance known as the Middle Kingdom. Middle Kingdom of Egypt Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom The pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom restored the country's stability and prosperity, thereby stimulating a resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building projects.
Moreover, the military reconquered territory in Nubia that was rich in quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive structure in the Eastern Delta, called the " Walls-of-the-Ruler ", to defend against foreign attack.
In contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom displayed an increase in expressions of personal piety.
These ambitious building and mining activities, however, combined with severe Nile floods later in his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the later Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties.
During this decline, the Canaanite settlers began to assume greater control of the Delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as the Hyksos.
The pharaoh was treated as a vassal and expected to pay tribute. They and other invaders introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot.
That task fell to Kamose's successor, Ahmose Iwho successfully waged a series of campaigns that permanently eradicated the Hyksos' presence in Egypt. He established a new dynasty and, in the New Kingdom that followed, the military became a central priority for the pharaohs, who sought to expand Egypt's borders and attempted to gain mastery of the Near East.
New Kingdom of Egypt The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbours, including the Mitanni Empire, Assyriaand Canaan. Military campaigns waged under Tuthmosis I and his grandson Tuthmosis III extended the influence of the pharaohs to the largest empire Egypt had ever seen.
Under Merneptah the rulers of Egypt became known as pharaohs instead of kings. A stone statue of Hatshepsut Between their reigns, Hatshepsuta queen who established herself as pharaoh, launched many building projects, including restoration of temples damaged by the Hyksos, and sent trading expenditions to Punt and the Sinai.
They also constructed monuments to glorify their own achievements, both real and imagined. The Karnak temple is the largest Egyptian temple ever built. Changing his name to Akhenatenhe touted the previously obscure sun deity Aten as the supreme deitysuppressed the worship of most other deities, and moved the capital to the new city of Akhetaten modern-day Amarna.
After his death, the cult of the Aten was quickly abandoned and the traditional religious order restored. The subsequent pharaohs, TutankhamunAyand Horemhebworked to erase all mention of Akhenaten's heresy, now known as the Amarna Period.
Initially, the military was able to repel these invasions, but Egypt eventually lost control of its remaining territories in southern Canaanmuch of it falling to the Assyrians.
The effects of external threats were exacerbated by internal problems such as corruption, tomb robbery, and civil unrest. After regaining their power, the high priests at the temple of Amun in Thebes accumulated vast tracts of land and wealth, and their expanded power splintered the country during the Third Intermediate Period.Author, Editor, Thesis advisor: Publication Timeline.
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