Charles Fourierinfluential early French socialist thinker Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity. It has been claimed—though controversially—that there were elements of socialist thought in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato  and Aristotle.
Family and community origins[ edit ] His statue in Amsterdam Spinoza's ancestors were of Sephardic Jewish descent and were a part of the community of Portuguese Jews that had settled in the city of Amsterdam in the wake of the Portuguese Inquisitionwhich had resulted in forced conversions and expulsions from the Iberian Peninsula.
They were expelled in and moved to Rotterdamwhere Isaac died in Spinoza's father and his uncle Manuel then moved to Amsterdam where they resumed the practice of Judaism.
Miguel was a successful merchant and became a warden of the synagogue and of the Amsterdam Jewish school. This flourishing commercial activity encouraged a culture relatively tolerant of the play of new ideas, to a considerable degree sheltered from the censorious hand of ecclesiastical authority though those considered to have gone "too far" might have gotten persecuted even in the Netherlands.
Not by chance were the philosophical works of both Descartes and Spinoza developed in the cultural and intellectual background of the Dutch Republic in the 17th century.
He was the second son of Miguel de Espinoza, a successful, although not wealthy, Portuguese Sephardic Jewish merchant in Amsterdam. Spinoza had a traditional Jewish upbringing, attending the Keter Torah yeshiva of the Amsterdam Talmud Torah congregation headed by the learned and traditional senior Rabbi Saul Levi Morteira.
His teachers also included the less traditional Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel"a man of wide learning and secular interests, a friend of VossiusGrotiusand Rembrandt ". Some state it began as early aswhen Spinoza was 20; others note that the documentary record only attests to his presence in van den Enden's circle around — Van den Enden was a notorious free thinker, former Jesuitand radical democrat who likely introduced Spinoza to scholastic and modern philosophyincluding that of Descartes.
Spinoza's father, Miguel, died in when Spinoza was He duly recited Kaddishthe Jewish prayer of mourning, for eleven months as required by Jewish law. This story has been discounted on the basis that Clara Maria van den Enden was born in and would have been no more than about 13 years old when Spinoza left Amsterdam.
During this period Spinoza also became acquainted with the Collegiantsan anti-clerical sect of Remonstrants with tendencies towards rationalismand with the Mennonites who had existed for a century but were close to the Remonstrants. If he succeeds, I shall at once admit defeat, and he will be my mighty Apollo.
For I confess that all my efforts over a long period have resulted in no such discovery. Indeed, I may add that I write nothing here that is not the fruit of lengthy reflection; and although I have been educated from boyhood in the accepted beliefs concerning Scripture, I have felt bound in the end to embrace the views I here express.
For example, questioned by two members of his synagogue, Spinoza apparently responded that God has a body and nothing in scripture says otherwise.
The business ran into serious financial difficulties, however, perhaps as a result of the First Anglo-Dutch War. In MarchSpinoza filed suit with the Amsterdam municipal authorities to be declared an orphan in order to escape his father's business debts and so that he could inherit his mother's estate which at first was incorporated into his father's estate without it being subject to his father's creditors.
Expulsion from the Jewish community[ edit ] On 27 Julythe Talmud Torah congregation of Amsterdam issued a writ of cherem Hebrew: But having failed to make him mend his wicked ways, and, on the contrary, daily receiving more and more serious information about the abominable heresies which he practised and taught and about his monstrous deeds, and having for this numerous trustworthy witnesses who have deposed and borne witness to this effect in the presence of the said Espinoza, they became convinced of the truth of the matter; and after all of this has been investigated in the presence of the honourable chachamin [sages], they have decided, with their consent, that the said Espinoza should be excommunicated and expelled from the people of Israel.
By the decree of the angels, and by the command of the holy men, we excommunicate, expel, curse and damn Baruch de Espinoza, with the consent of God, Blessed be He, and with the consent of all the Holy Congregation, in front of these holy Scrolls with the six-hundred-and-thirteen precepts which are written therein, with the excommunication with which Joshua banned Jericho with the curse with which Elisha cursed the boys  and with all the curses which are written in the Book of the Law.
Cursed be he by day and cursed be he by night; cursed be he when he lies down, and cursed be he when he rises up; cursed be he when he goes out, and cursed be he when he comes in.
The Lord will not spare him; the anger and wrath of the Lord will rage against this man, and bring upon him all the curses which are written in this book, and the Lord will blot out his name from under heaven, and the Lord will separate him to his injury from all the tribes of Israel with all the curses of the covenant, which are written in the Book of the Law.
But you who cleave unto the Lord God are all alive this day. We order that no one should communicate with him orally or in writing, or show him any favour, or stay with him under the same roof, or within four ells of him, or read anything composed or written by him. Statue of Spinoza, near his house on the Paviljoensgracht in The Hague.
The Talmud Torah congregation issued censure routinely, on matters great and small, so such an edict was not unusual.
First, there were Spinoza's radical theological views that he was apparently expressing in public. As philosopher and Spinoza biographer Steven Nadler puts it: In those works, Spinoza denies the immortality of the soul; strongly rejects the notion of a providential God—the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and claims that the Law was neither literally given by God nor any longer binding on Jews.
Can there be any mystery as to why one of history's boldest and most radical thinkers was sanctioned by an orthodox Jewish community? This community must have been concerned to protect its reputation from any association with Spinoza lest his controversial views provide the basis for their own possible persecution or expulsion.
But "inthe town council expressly ordered [the Portuguese Jewish community] to regulate their conduct and ensure that the members of the community kept to a strict observance of Jewish law.
He had probably stopped attending services at the synagogue, either after the lawsuit with his sister or after the knife attack on its steps. He might already have been voicing the view expressed later in his Theological-Political Treatise that the civil authorities should suppress Judaism as harmful to the Jews themselves.
Either for financial or other reasons,   he had in any case effectively stopped contributing to the synagogue by March The artisan activity commenced at an unknown date during Spinoza's early phase at Amsterdam, during the s.
He appears to have been quite skilled in lens-grinding by . Event. Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors.
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The Romanticism Versus Enlightenment trope as used in popular culture. Some Eighteenth century people believed that reason and science are good and therefore . Online Library of Liberty.
A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets.
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