The present is just a way station. Americans believe in setting strict deadlines and timetables, even for casual social events. Productivity, self-reliance and "getting things done" are prized personal and professional qualities.
The ego-defensive notion correlates nicely with Downward Comparison Theory which holds the view that derogating a less fortunate other increases our own subjective well-being.
We are more likely to use the ego-defensive function when we suffer a frustration Cultural atittude misfortune. Value-Expressive Serves to express one's central values and self-concept. Central values tend to establish our identity and gain us social approval thereby showing us who we are, and what we stand for.
An example would concern attitudes toward a controversial Cultural atittude issue. Formation[ edit ] According to Dooblearning can account for most of the attitudes we hold.
The study of attitude formation is the study of how people form evaluations of persons, places or things.
Theories of classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning and social learning are mainly responsible for formation of attitude. Unlike personalityattitudes are expected to change as a function of experience. In addition, exposure to the 'attitude' objects may have an effect on how a person forms his or her attitude.
This concept was seen as the "Mere-Exposure Effect". Robert Zajonc showed that people were more likely to have a positive attitude on 'attitude objects' when they were exposed to it frequently than if they were not.
Mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus is a sufficient condition for the enhancement of his attitude toward it. For example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistent in our beliefs and values.
As with any type of heritability, to determine if a particular trait has a basis in our genes, twin studies are used. Attitude change Attitudes can be changed through persuasion and an important domain of research on attitude change focuses on responses to communication.
Experimental research into the factors that can affect the persuasiveness of a message include: These are characteristics that refer to the person who receives and processes a message. One such trait is intelligence - it seems that more intelligent people are less easily persuaded by one-sided messages.
Another variable that has been studied in this category is self-esteem. The mind frame and mood of the target also plays a role in this process.
The major source characteristics are expertise, trustworthiness and interpersonal attraction or attractiveness. The credibility of a perceived message has been found to be a key variable here; if one reads a report about health and believes it came from a professional medical journal, one may be more easily persuaded than if one believes it is from a popular newspaper.
Some psychologists have debated whether this is a long-lasting effect and Hovland and Weiss found the effect of telling people that a message came from a credible source disappeared after several weeks the so-called " sleeper effect ".
Whether there is a sleeper effect is controversial. Perceived wisdom is that if people are informed of the source of a message before hearing it, there is less likelihood of a sleeper effect than if they are told a message and then told its source.
The nature of the message plays a role in persuasion. Sometimes presenting both sides of a story is useful to help change attitudes. When people are not motivated to process the message, simply the number of arguments presented in a persuasive message will influence attitude change, such that a greater number of arguments will produce greater attitude change.
A message can appeal to an individual's cognitive evaluation to help change an attitude. In the central route to persuasion the individual is presented with the data and motivated to evaluate the data and arrive at an attitude changing conclusion.
In the peripheral route to attitude change, the individual is encouraged to not look at the content but at the source. This is commonly seen in modern advertisements that feature celebrities.Culture is the sum of total of the learned behavior of a group of people that are generally considered to be the tradition of that people and are transmitted from generation to generation.
Culture is a collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. Other Social Life in Indonesia () There are other social cultural life which still exist in Indonesia, as follows: The Respect for Father and Mother: A great family tries to always put high regards for their parents, father as the chief of family and mother as a supporter.
Culture is the believe, habit and opinion of a group of people, society, tribe or nation about life generally and the way we live it.
Therefore cultural attitude will be individual acceptance and undertaking of these believes habits and opinion of the people.
Cultural imperialism can take various forms, such as an attitude, a formal policy, or military action, insofar as it reinforces cultural hegemony. Contents 1 .
attitude - a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways; "he had the attitude that work was fun" mental attitude cognition, knowledge, noesis - the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning.
Sweden has been a sovereign state for more than a millennium, and this has fostered cultural cohesion. Centuries of relative ethnic, religious, and linguistic homogeneity were followed by substantial immigration during the last sixty years, creating a multicultural society.