Thursday February 18, - Perhaps best known for the health manual Where There Is No Doctor, which has been translated into several languages, Hesperian rushed to provide free downloads of its Haitian Creole version, Kote ki pa gen dokte, a day after the disaster. The non-profit, which publishes community health books in Berkeley, reported 30, downloads in the first week. Doctors, nurses and aid workers in the country are also using the information, Hawkinson said.
Week of December 16, DP The political economy of trade and migration: Evidence from the U.S. Congress Paola Conconi, Giovanni Facchini, Max Steinhardt, Maurizio Zanardi. ABSTRACT. Acromegaly is a rare condition with an approximate incidence of new cases per million of population per year and a prevalence of 60 per million (1). Dec 31, · Riordan Manufacturing, Inc. Balance Sheet Analysis Careful analysis was done of Riordan Manufacturing’s balance sheet. The balance sheet provides details into the company’s financial position. It is made up of the company’s assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity.
Introduction This paper draws on the results of recent research on the process of learning and training research in small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs as a way of exploring some of the implications for policy-makers and their advisers.
What is of prime consideration here, relevant to policies and the skill levels found in small enterprises, is the perception of underinvestment in training.
This is then done through various programmes designed to increase the level of formal training within small enterprises. Because formal training is the one aspect of learning and training in companies that can be measured, it is widely used by economists to argue that the absence of it represents a lower level of investment in human capital by small enterprise owners.
Given that human capital is also vital for ensuring economic growth and that small enterprises often provide the majority of jobs in the economy, the case for government intervention in this area becomes a very powerful one.
However, the research findings presented here challenge this interpretation and the beliefs they sustain. While small enterprises are major employers in developed and developing countries, spanning both formal and informal economies, they are particularly large in number in developing countries where the informal economy is significant in employment and GDP terms.
It should be noted that there is no universal or international definition applied to the size of enterprises. The criteria used to determine this definition for example, turnover, number of employees, value of fixed assets, sector vary across countries.
When drawing from empirical data from different countries, we present data on skills development in micro, small, medium and large firms that use different size criteria and this criteria is noted whenever possible.
In general terms, this may be seen to include micro-enterprises with as many as 25 workers and small enterprises with up to 50 workers.
These firms typically operate in the formal economy although they may still engage in informal transactions and have a more complex management structure than small enterprises. Because there is considerable confusion in the literature on small enterprises about what makes them distinctive, it is important to define the categories carefully Trouve, Essentially, what we argue is that there are very real differences between small enterprises i.
Our aim with this paper is to dispel what we see as the myths that underpin much of the current approach to learning and training in small enterprises.
Specifically, we look at four myths: We argue that these myths rest on a shortcoming of previous research to differentiate between two very distinctive issues: In Section 2, we examine the current knowledge on the factors that determine skill levels in small enterprises.
If these factors can be identified, then they can be acted upon in a way that enhances skill levels. In this respect, we find that the factors that determine the levels of skill developed and utilized in small enterprises are usually the same as those for larger enterprises.
This leads to the conclusion that there is nothing inherent in the nature of small companies that prompts them to maintain lower levels of skill or capability in their employees.
The second issue centres on formal versus informal training and why smaller companies tend to make less use of formal training than larger companies. We use a range of research findings that highlight the fact that the processes of learning and training take on different forms in MSEs from that typically found in MLEs.
Section 3 explores this issue with regard to MSEs. The important distinction here is not between small enterprises and large enterprises, as is usually the case, but between MSEs on one hand and MLEs on the other.
Moreover, in Section 4, we argue that it would be misleading to believe that the informal system of learning and training, which is characteristic of MSEs and which differentiates the learning and skills formation process from that of MLEs, is inferior.
In this view, there is nothing to warrant governments trying to increase the use of formal training among MSEs.
By separating out these two very distinct issues, we come to some very interesting and different conclusions. We explore the policy implications of this discussion in Section 5.
Existing research evidence indicates that the factors responsible for making the experience of skills formation in MSEs different from that experienced and organized in MLEs are the same in all societies. Similarly, we believe that the underlying factors that affect the level of skills demanded by firms are the same in all societies.
We use examples from a range of research, some undertaken by the authors Sung, Raddon and Ashton, ; Ashton and Riordan, to illustrate these points. There are, of course, a number of factors affecting the process of learning and training in small enterprises that we do not have the space to cover in this paper.
For example, one of the most important factors is the impact of national culture. For instance, the German apprenticeship system provides a supply of high-level intermediate skills to German small enterprises that are not available in developing countries with their more rudimentary VET infrastructure.
This, in turn, increases the number of German companies that can operate in higher valueadded markets. Nevertheless, when we look at the factors that determine the level of skills demanded by employers, they are the same in Thailand as they are in Germany.
Another way that national cultures affect enterprise-based learning and training is through the small enterprise infrastructure.
For example, the market-led approach in the United Kingdom and the United States is very different from the sector-based approach 2 observed in Japan.
In Anglo-Saxon countries, the tradition has been for governments not to interfere in the workings of the market. Thus small enterprises could only be given public funding if it was shown that markets were failing to deliver appropriate outcomes due to small enterprises failing to invest in training.
In Japan, however, there has been a different approach. The Japanese government traditionally helped small enterprises as part of a sector-based industrial policy. Given the demise of the sector-based approach in Japan and the end of these relationships with the conglomerates, the small enterprises were left exposed to the uncertain effects of market forces.
However, elements of the old framework remain that makes the Japanese approach different to that of the Anglo-Saxon countries.ESC/EACTS GUIDELINES ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization The Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
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