References and Further Reading 1.
Among his small band of insurgents were several young men who had also carried out vigilante violence in Kansas in hopes of abolishing slavery in that territory.
The raid itself failed, and those who did not escape or die in the raid were later executed, including Brown himself. In a political sense, however, the raid successfully fulfilled Brown's larger goals by igniting national divisions and helping to spark the American Civil War. The start of violence in Kansas Territory thereby led to one of the most important chapters of American history.
America's Sectional Divide The Harpers Ferry raid sent shockwaves through the nation's political landscape, influencing the outcome of the presidential election of Northerners were reminded of the horrors of a slave system that provoked men to such drastic violence, while Southerners insisted there was no difference between radical violent abolitionists such as John Brown and more mainstream Republican candidates like Abraham Lincoln.
As abolitionist Lydia Maria Child observed, the wind sowed in Kansas, reaped a whirlwind in Virginia.
Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas never intended such a result. Under the provisions of the Missouri Compromise, the northern half of the Louisiana Purchase, west of Iowa and Missouri, was free territory.
Southerners in Congress, therefore, had no interest in organizing territories there that would become free states, and legislation authorizing those territories failed. InDouglas revised the latest version of the bill, creating the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and replacing the prohibition on slavery with popular sovereignty — the right of the people, through their territorial legislatures, to decide whether to have slavery.
Popular sovereignty had a long pedigree in American politics. InDemocratic presidential candidate Lewis Cass adopted popular sovereignty as his policy for dealing with slavery in the lands acquired from Mexico. Congress passed the Compromise of to settle the question of the Mexican Cession and, in his Kansas-Nebraska bill, Douglas claimed that the Utah and New Mexico provisions of that compromise were essentially precedents for popular sovereignty.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act passed inpaving the way for settlement of those territories. Iowans crossed the border into Nebraska and voted in territorial elections, but their numbers were small and Nebraska was expected to be a free state.
In Kansas, a small civil war broke out between proslavery Missourians and settlers from the free states, rooted in the flawed implementation of popular sovereignty.
Problems appeared in the first territorial election, for a delegate to Congress, in November Missourians crossed the river to vote in the territory. At polls throughout the territory, armed Missourians threatened voters and election officials from the free states.
Although a territorial census had shown that there were 2, eligible voters in the territory, proslavery candidates were elected to the so-called " Bogus Legislature " with majorities of over 5, votes. Many Northern settlers who felt deprived of their political rights abandoned Kansas, overcome by frontier hardships.
Nonetheless, the proslavery victory seemed to many a blatant violation of the polls. The newly elected territorial legislature passed a slave code for Kansas. But although Benjamin Stringfellowpublisher of a proslavery newspaper, boasted that Kansas now had slave laws as solid as any in the country, resistance was building.
The small number of New Englanders in Kansas now combined with the much larger number of Midwestern settlers to form a Free-State movement. In Septemberthey assembled at Topeka and wrote a constitution for a free state of Kansas. Although many Northerners backed this Topeka movement, it was extra-legal and lacked legitimacy with the federal government.
For the next several years, the Free-Staters carried out a precarious balancing act. The Free-Staters engaged in a propaganda war. But fear of retaliation from the federal government, which called the Free-Staters traitors and recognized the proslavery territorial legislature as the legal government of Kansas Territory, restrained Free-Staters from going too far.
Events during the winter of gave the Law and Order movement its chance.The tools you need to write a quality essay or term paper; Saved Essays. You Have Not Saved Any Essays. Tri' and Minority report', a range of conflict is represented by different composers through the usage of different structure and several techniques such as setting, dialogues, music, language and camera angles..
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