Dan Landis and Richard W. Area Studies in Intercultural Training deals with information about the countries in which people will be living and working, where Area Studies in Intercultural Training deals with information about the countries in which people will be living and working, where trainers want new and better country-specific information that can be incorporated into their programs.
Cultural competence in healthcare The provision of culturally tailored health care can improve patient outcomes. InCalifornia passed Assembly Bill that requires patient-related continuing medical education courses in California medical school to incorporate cultural and linguistic competence training in order to qualify for certification credits.
It is impossible to refer to "a Hispanic-American perspective" or to "a single Latino culture". Although these American citizens have Latin American roots, the term "Latino" to characterize them is more correct since it is more inclusive of non-Spanish-speaking Latinos.
However, the term "Latino" does not include individuals from Spanish-speaking countries outside of Latin America e. There is also a lack of adequate research into how race and ethnicity affects members of a group. Race has been used to explain the absence of research.
Racial classifications are based on outmoded concepts and dubious assumptions regarding genetic differences. In fact, outside of skin color, race is poorly correlated with biological or cultural phenomena, which sharply diminishes its validity in biomedical or social research.
Yet, unlike race or national origin, ethnicity is a sociological construct highly correlated with behavioral and cultural phenomena, particularly language, dress, adornment, food preference, religion, social interaction, marriage and family customs.
Further research is needed to determine whether race and ethnicity among Latinos are rather driven by mechanisms of discrimination and macrosocial factors or social status. Fortunately, not too long ago, the National Institutes of Health took an important step by insisting that any NIH- supported clinical investigation include, where appropriate, minority populations, women and the aged.
This aggregate will never produce a proper sample. Rigorous Handbook intercultural communication to sample size, composition and sampling strategies is required to research basic psychosocial processes and clinical responses of minority populations.
Accordingly, the heterogeneity of the Hispanic community has to be taken into account. Cross-cultural competence Cross-cultural competence 3C has generated confusing and contradictory definitions because it has been studied by a wide variety of academic approaches and professional fields.
One author identified eleven different terms that have some equivalence to 3C: Poor results have often been obtained due to a lack of rigorous study of 3C and a reliance on " common sense " approaches. One theoretical construct posits that 3C, language proficiencyand regional knowledge are distinct skills that are inextricably linked, but to varying degrees depending on the context in which they are employed.
But, as one approaches the internalizing and evaluation levels, the overlapping areas approach totality. When interacting with people from other cultures, the individual experiences certain obstacles that are caused by differences in cultural understanding between two people from different cultures.
Such experiences may motivate the individual to acquire skills that can help him to communicate his point of view to an audience belonging to a different cultural ethnicity and background. Immigrants and international students[ edit ] A salient issue, especially for people living in countries other than their native country, is the issue of which culture they should follow: International students also face this issue: The students who decide to hold on to their native culture are those who experience the most problems in their university life and who encounter frequent culture shocks.
But international students who adapt themselves to the culture surrounding them and who interact more with domestic students will increase their knowledge of the domestic culture, which may help them to "blend in" more.
In the article it stated, "Segmented assimilation theorists argue that students from less affluent and racial and ethnic minority immigrant families face a number of educational hurdles and barriers that often stem from racial, ethnic, and gender biases and discrimination embedded within the U.
Ethnocentrism Another issue that stands out in intercultural communication is the attitude stemming from Ethnocentrism.
With ethnocentric attitudes, those incapable to expand their view of different cultures could create conflict between groups. Ignorance to diversity and cultural groups contributes to prevention of peaceful interaction in a fast-paced globalizing world.
The counterpart of ethnocentrism is ethnorelativism: Geert Hofstede Cultural characteristics can be measured along several dimensions that were defined by Geert Hofstede in his studies of cultural differences.
The ability to perceive them and to cope with them is fundamental for intercultural competence. Individualism versus Collectivism[ edit ] Decisions are based on the benefits of the group rather than the individual; Strong loyalty to the group as the main social unit; The group is expected to take care of each individual; Collectivist cultures include Pakistan, India, Japan, and Guatemala.
Masculinity versus Femininity[ edit ] Value behaviors that indicate assertiveness and wealth; Judge people based on the degree of ambition and achievement; General behaviors are associated with male behavior; Sex roles are clearly defined and sexual inequality is acceptable; Masculine cultures include Austria, Italy, Japan, and Mexico.
Value behaviors that promote the quality of life such as caring for others and nurturing; Gender roles overlap and sexual equality is preferred as the norm; Nurturing behaviors are acceptable for both women and men; Feminine cultures are Chile, Portugal, Sweden, and Thailand. Uncertainty avoidance   [ edit ] Reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty; Uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which a person in society feels comfortable with a sense of uncertainty and ambiguity.
High uncertainty avoidance cultures   Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance Index or UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behavior and are intolerant of unorthodox behavior and ideas; Members of society expect consensus about national and societal goals; Society ensures security by setting extensive rules and keeping more structure; High uncertainty avoidance cultures are Greece, Guatemala, Portugal, and Uruguay.
Low uncertainty avoidance cultures   Low UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles; Low uncertainty avoidance cultures accept and feel comfortable in unstructured situations or changeable environments and try to have as few rules as possible; People in these cultures are more tolerant of change and accept risks; Low uncertainty avoidance cultures are Denmark, Jamaica, Ireland, and Singapore.
Power distance   [ edit ] Refers to the degree in which cultures accept unequal distribution of power and challenge the decisions of power holders; Depending on the culture, some people may be considered superior to others because of a large number of factors such as wealth, age, occupation, gender, personal achievements, family history, etc.
High power distance cultures   Believe that social and class hierarchy and inequalities are beneficial, that authority should not be challenged, and that people with higher social status have the right to use power; Cultures with high power distance are Arab countries, Guatemala, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
Low power distance cultures   Believe in reducing inequalities, challenging authority, minimizing hierarchical structures, and using power just when necessary; Low power distance countries are Austria, Denmark, Israel, and New Zealand.The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication constitutes a comprehensive introduction to the multidisciplinary field of intercultural communication, drawing on the expertise of leading scholars from diverse backgrounds.
The Handbook is structured in five sections and covers historical perspectives, core issues and topics. William B. Gudykunst Intercultural Communication Theories William B. Gudykunst Intercultural Communication Competence International Communication: Introduction Bella Mody Theory and Research in International Communication: the Handbook is intercultural, not inter-group, communication.
Handbook of Intercultural Communication In today’s globalized world of international contact and multicultural interaction, effective intercultural communication is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for social harmony and organisational ashio-midori.com: $ The Handbooks of Applied Linguistics series is based on an understanding of Applied Linguistics as an inter- and transdisciplinary field of academic enquiry.
Applied Linguistics deals with the theoretical and empirical investigation of real-world problems in which language and communication are a central issue.
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