Intro to philosophy w logic critical thinking

Modern Platonism Mathematical Platonism is the form of realism that suggests that mathematical entities are abstract, have no spatiotemporal or causal properties, and are eternal and unchanging.

Intro to philosophy w logic critical thinking

The Nature and Philosophy of Science Introduction Scientists are unbiased observers who use the scientific method to conclusively confirm and conclusively falsify various theories.


These experts have no preconceptions in gathering the data and logically derive theories from these objective observations.

Although such eminent views of science have been accepted by many people, they are almost completely untrue. Data can neither conclusively confirm nor conclusively falsify theories, there really is no such thing as the scientific method, data become somewhat subjective in practice, and scientists have displayed a surprisingly fierce loyalty to their theories.

There have been many misconceptions of what science is and is not. Science is a project whose goal is to obtain knowledge of the natural world. The philosophy of science is a discipline that deals with the system of science itself.

The Basic Structure of Science To properly understand the contemporary philosophy of science, it is necessary to examine some basic components of science.

The components of science are data, theories, and what is sometimes called shaping principles. This is because the specific details of data that come into play can make science such a tricky business that some scientists, when talking to laymen, sometime leave them out.

Also, it is easy to fit a theory in with the data if the data are vague and overgeneralized. It usually becomes more difficult to fit the theory with specific data, especially since the details make it more likely for the theory to become less plausible. Even so, data are important parts of theories and of science.

Contrary to what some might think, a theory in the scientific sense does not have anything to do with whether or not it is supported by the evidence, contradicted by the evidence, well liked among scientists, and so forth. That is, just because a theory is a scientific theory does not mean that the scientific community currently accepts it.

There are many theories that, though technically scientific, have been rejected because the scientific evidence is strongly against it.

Intro to philosophy w logic critical thinking

Phenomenological theories are empirical generalizations of data. They merely describe the recurring processes of nature and do not refer to their causes or mechanisms. Phenomenological theories are also called scientific laws, physical laws, and natural laws.

It says that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Explanatory theories attempt to explain the observations rather than generalize them. Whereas laws are descriptions of empirical regularities, explanatory theories are conceptual constructions to explain why the data exist.

For example, atomic theory explains why we see certain observations.JUST WAR AND IRAQ: I said below that I have yet to hear a satisfactory answer on why a quick war with Iraq would not be more just than the status quo of immiserating sanctions.

Now Glenn Reynolds links to a Michael Walzer essay on a war with Iraq that provides one response. The key grafs: "Defending the embargo, the American overflights, and the UN inspections: this is the right way to oppose.

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College And Critical Thinking | Slate Star Codex

is a free game-based learning platform that makes it fun to learn – any subject, in any language, on any device, for all ages! Over Thanksgiving, I was discussing tulip subsidies with the pro-Bernie-Sanders faction of my family, and my uncle claimed that we needed college because “it teaches you how to think critically”..

The evidence sort of supports him, but with the usual caveats and uncertainties. First of all, what the heck is critical thinking? René Descartes: Scientific Method. René Descartes’ major work on scientific method was the Discourse that was published in (more fully: Discourse on the Method for Rightly Directing One’s Reason and Searching for Truth in the Sciences).He published other works that deal with problems of method, but this remains central in any understanding of the Cartesian method of science.

The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives. The logical and structural nature of mathematics itself makes this study both broad and unique among its philosophical.

If you like this book, you may well enjoy applying your Critical Thinking skills to the big debates in contemporary science (which my book Paradigm Shift is about) - or to those evergreen problems of philosophy which my two '' books present.

These books present problems in very short passages - ideal for group brainstorming!

Introduction to Modern Literary Theory