Source The photograph that has become known as "Migrant Mother" is one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of in Nipomo, California. Lange was concluding a month's trip photographing migratory farm labor around the state for what was then the Resettlement Administration. InLange gave this account of the experience:
Table of Contents Plot Overview Jurgis Rudkus and Ona Lukoszaite, a young man and woman who have recently immigrated to Chicago from Lithuania, hold their wedding feast at a bar in an area of Chicago known as Packingtown. After the reception, Jurgis and Ona discover that they are more than a hundred dollars in debt to the saloonkeeper.
In Lithuania, custom dictates that guests at a wedding-feast leave money to cover the cost, but in America, many of the impoverished immigrants depart from the feast without leaving any money.
Jurgis, who has great faith in the American Dream, vows that he will simply work harder to make more money. The family signs an agreement to buy a house, but it turns out to be a swindle; the agreement is full of hidden costs, Jungle essay the house is shoddy and poorly maintained.
Jobs in Packingtown involve back-breaking labor, however, conducted in unsafe conditions with little regard for individual workers. Furthermore, the immigrant community is fraught with crime and corruption. But the job is too difficult for the old man, and it quickly kills him.
Winter is the most dangerous season in Packingtown and even Jurgis, forced to work in an unheated slaughterhouse in which it is difficult to see, risks his life every day by simply going to work.
Marija is courted by Tamoszius, a likable violinist, but the couple is never able to marry because they never have enough money to hold a wedding. Hoping to improve his lot, Jurgis begins trying to learn English.
Marija regains her job, but she is fired when she complains about being cheated out of some of her pay. Ona is now pregnant, and her job has become increasingly difficult for her. Her supervisor, Miss Henderson, oversees a prostitution ring, and most of the other girls at the factory are made to be prostitutes.
In Packingtown, any mishap can bring ruin upon a family. Jurgis sprains his ankle and is forced to spend nearly three months in bed, unable to work.
Unable to tolerate the misery, Jonas abandons the family, disappearing without a word. Kristoforas, the youngest son of Teta Elzbieta, dies of food poisoning. Jurgis at last recovers and returns to work, but the factory refuses to give him his job back.
After a long, frustrating search for employment, Jurgis is forced to take a job at the fertilizer plant, the foulest place in all of Packingtown. He begins to numb himself with alcohol.
Ona is pregnant again. Jurgis attacks Connor and is arrested. After an unfair trial, Jurgis is sentenced to a month in prison; the family will again be forced to scrape by without his wages. In prison, Jurgis befriends a criminal named Jack Duane. When he is released, Jurgis discovers that his family has been evicted from its home and is living at the run-down boardinghouse in which they first stayed when they arrived in Chicago.
When he enters the boardinghouse, he finds Ona screaming; she is prematurely in labor, and the effort of giving birth kills her and the child.
In agony, Jurgis disappears on a drinking binge. At last, Teta Elzbieta convinces Jurgis to think of his son, and he again begins searching for a job.
Through the philanthropy of a wealthy woman who takes an interest in the family, Jurgis finds a good job at a steel mill. He dedicates himself to Antanas and feels renewed hope in life.
But his hopes are shattered when Antanas drowns in the mud-logged street. In despair, Jurgis abandons his surviving family members and wanders the countryside as a tramp. In the winter, Jurgis returns to Chicago, where he finds a job digging freight tunnels.The Jungle study guide contains a biography of Upton Sinclair, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a .
- The Jungle It’s a Jungle Out There Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle () gives an in depth look at the lives of the immigrant workers here in America.
In fact the look was so in depth that the Pure Food and Drug Act was created as a result. Of the silent trilogy, Earth () is Dovzhenko’s most accessible film but, perhaps for these same reasons, most misunderstood. In a Brussels’ film jury would vote Earth as one of the great films of all time.
Earth marks a threshold in Dovzhenko’s career emblematic of a turning point in the Ukrainian cultural and political avant-garde - the end of one period and transition to another. The Jungle Upton Sinclair The following entry presents criticism on Sinclair's novel The Jungle ()..
Sinclair was a leading “muckraker,” a group of . The Vietnam War - A pictorial. Enter the tour >>. A short summary of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of The Jungle.